Bioloxía



If Gaza were the United States, the toll would be 235,252 dead, and 1,171,939. In 23 days.
That’s equal to 1.4 million casualties. In 23 days.
That’s equal to 78 September 11 attacks. In 23 days.
That’s equal to 4 times all American deaths in Vietnam War. In 23 days.
—Arun Gupta (via baruch-de-spinoza)

(Source: mansplainedmarxist)

currentsinbiology:

Unexpected stem cell factories found inside teeth
Researchers have now discovered nervous system cells transforming back into stem cells in a very surprising place: inside teeth. This unexpected source of stem cells potentially offers scientists a new starting point from which to grow human tissues for therapeutic or research purposes without using embryos.

“More than just applications within dentistry, this finding can have very broad implications,” says developmental biologist Igor Adameyko of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, who led the new work. “These stem cells could be used for regenerating cartilage and bone as well.”

Researchers were studying glial cells, which support and surround neurons that wind through the mouth and gums and help transmit signals of pain from the teeth to the brain. When they added fluorescent labels to a set of glial cells in mice, they saw that over time, some of them migrated away from neurons in the gums toward the inside of teeth, where they transformed into mesenchymal stem cells. Eventually, the same cells matured into tooth cells, the team reported this week in Nature
Flexible. Nerve cells sometimes spontaneously transform into stem cells inside teeth, researchers have discovered. Pasieka/Science Photo Library/Corbis

currentsinbiology:

Unexpected stem cell factories found inside teeth

Researchers have now discovered nervous system cells transforming back into stem cells in a very surprising place: inside teeth. This unexpected source of stem cells potentially offers scientists a new starting point from which to grow human tissues for therapeutic or research purposes without using embryos.

“More than just applications within dentistry, this finding can have very broad implications,” says developmental biologist Igor Adameyko of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, who led the new work. “These stem cells could be used for regenerating cartilage and bone as well.”

Researchers were studying glial cells, which support and surround neurons that wind through the mouth and gums and help transmit signals of pain from the teeth to the brain. When they added fluorescent labels to a set of glial cells in mice, they saw that over time, some of them migrated away from neurons in the gums toward the inside of teeth, where they transformed into mesenchymal stem cells. Eventually, the same cells matured into tooth cells, the team reported this week in Nature

Flexible. Nerve cells sometimes spontaneously transform into stem cells inside teeth, researchers have discovered. Pasieka/Science Photo Library/Corbis

scienceyoucanlove:

Albino Gorilla Was Result of Inbreeding

Both of Snowflake’s parents had a rare gene that causes albinism

Lara Sorokanich

National Geographic

PUBLISHED JUNE 18, 2013

Snowflake the gorilla gained notoriety for being the only known albino of his species. Now the late ape is making headlines again over the recent postmortem discovery that he was inbred.

Snowflake, a western lowland gorilla, was born in the wild in Equatorial Guinea (map). In 1966 he was taken to the Barcelona Zoo in Barcelona, Spain, where he lived until his death from skin cancer in 2003.

Since then, scientists at Barcelona’s Institut de Biologia Evolutiva at the University of Pompeu Fabra have been studying Snowflake’s frozen blood and using it to sequence his genome.

In a new study, they announced a twofold discovery about Snowflake’s genes that may help scientists understand how he became the only known albino of his species. An animal that does not produce melanin, resulting in little or no color in the skin, hair, and eyes, is considered an albino. (See more pictures of albino animals.)

Unusual Combination

First, the scientists pinpointed the exact genetic cause of Snowflake’s albinism—a gene known as SCL45A2, which had previously been reported in albino mice, horses, and chickens, said study leaderTomas Marques-Bonet.

Second, and possibly more important, the scientists found that Snowflake was the result of inbreeding—an unusual practice for his species—which was likely the reason for the gorilla’s unique coloration, according to the study, published May 31 in BMC Genomics.

The albino mutation is recessive, Marques-Bonet explained, meaning it becomes visible only if both parents pass the mutation on to a child. One of Snowflake’s ancestors was likely the original carrier.

Because his parents were related—an uncle and a niece by the researchers’ guess—their DNA contained some of the same genes, one of which happened to be the rare albinism mutation. (Get a genetics overview.)

Both the mutant gene and the inbreeding are rare occurrences for western lowland gorillas, and the combination that produced Snowflake isn’t likely to happen again anytime soon.

"This explains why only one albino western lowland gorilla has ever been found," Marques-Bonet told National Geographic.

"Snowflake was the conjunction of two very rare events."

from NatGeo

compoundchem:

A look at the chemistry behind the colours of various gemstones; read more & see a larger version of the graphic here: http://wp.me/p4aPLT-lj

compoundchem:

A look at the chemistry behind the colours of various gemstones; read more & see a larger version of the graphic here: http://wp.me/p4aPLT-lj

do-not-touch-my-food:

Chocolate Dipped Strawberry Fro Yo Sandwiches
thealienbabe:

!!!!

(Source: lunokajsteloj)

scienthusiasts:

Codariocalyx motorius, known as the telegraph plant or semaphore plant, is a tropical Asian shrub, one of a few plants capable of rapid movement. This plant is famous for its movement of small, lateral leaflets at speeds rapid enough to be perceivable with the naked eye. This is a strategy to maximise light by tracking the sun. Each leaf is equipped with a hinge that permits it to be moved to receive more sunlight, but the weight of these leaves means the plant must expend a lot of energy in moving it. To optimise its movement, each large leaf has two small leaflets at its base. These move constantly along an elliptical path, sampling the intensity of sunlight, and directing the large leaf to the area of most intensity. (Wikipedia)
GIF created from this video

It can dance to music, guys! MUSE

scienthusiasts:

Codariocalyx motorius, known as the telegraph plant or semaphore plant, is a tropical Asian shrub, one of a few plants capable of rapid movementThis plant is famous for its movement of small, lateral leaflets at speeds rapid enough to be perceivable with the naked eye. This is a strategy to maximise light by tracking the sun. Each leaf is equipped with a hinge that permits it to be moved to receive more sunlight, but the weight of these leaves means the plant must expend a lot of energy in moving it. To optimise its movement, each large leaf has two small leaflets at its base. These move constantly along an elliptical path, sampling the intensity of sunlight, and directing the large leaf to the area of most intensity. (Wikipedia)

GIF created from this video

It can dance to music, guys! MUSE

atomicallena:

compoundchem:

Ever wondered how much water/caffeine/alcohol you’d need to drink to reach a lethal dose? This graphic shows the median lethal dose for all three!Read more detail about LD50 tests in the accompanying post: http://wp.me/p4aPLT-ol

A huge problem with a lot of misinformed people and “hazardous chemicals” is that while on one hand, certain things can be lethal in large doses, but on the other hand, they are oftentimes harmless because we exposed to relatively small concentrations at a time.
Believe it or not, water is a chemical! But wait! If it’s a chemical, it’s dangerous, right? Well, yes, and no. As illustrated above, consuming huge amounts of water can be harmful. However, most of us consume much less than 6 litres of water in one sitting, so it’s relatively quite harmless to us. 
With every chemical (i.e. everything), we always need to think about how much of this substance/chemical/material/etc. we are being exposed to, and whether or not that specific concentration is harmful to us.

atomicallena:

compoundchem:

Ever wondered how much water/caffeine/alcohol you’d need to drink to reach a lethal dose? This graphic shows the median lethal dose for all three!

Read more detail about LD50 tests in the accompanying post: http://wp.me/p4aPLT-ol

A huge problem with a lot of misinformed people and “hazardous chemicals” is that while on one hand, certain things can be lethal in large doses, but on the other hand, they are oftentimes harmless because we exposed to relatively small concentrations at a time.

Believe it or not, water is a chemical! But wait! If it’s a chemical, it’s dangerous, right? Well, yes, and no. As illustrated above, consuming huge amounts of water can be harmful. However, most of us consume much less than 6 litres of water in one sitting, so it’s relatively quite harmless to us. 

With every chemical (i.e. everything), we always need to think about how much of this substance/chemical/material/etc. we are being exposed to, and whether or not that specific concentration is harmful to us.

(Source: fenisoffended)

lifestyleoftheunemployed:

6 Rules to Travel By
At 19, I read a sentence that re-terraformed my head: “The level of matter in the universe has been constant since the Big Bang.”
In all the aeons we have lost nothing, we have gained nothing - not a speck, not a grain, not a breath. The universe is simply a sealed, twisting kaleidoscope that has reordered itself a trillion trillion trillion times over.
Each baby, then, is a unique collision - a cocktail, a remix - of all that has come before: made from molecules of Napoleon and stardust and comets and whale tooth; colloidal mercury and Cleopatra’s breath: and with the same darkness that is between the stars between, and inside, our own atoms.
When you know this, you suddenly see the crowded top deck of the bus, in the rain, as a miracle: this collection of people is by way of a starburst constellation. Families are bright, irregular-shaped nebulae. Finding a person you love is like galaxies colliding. We are all peculiar, unrepeatable, perambulating micro-universes - we have never been before and we will never be again. Oh God, the sheer exuberant, unlikely face of our existences. The honour of being alive. They will never be able to make you again. Don’t you dare waste a second of it thinking something better will happen when it ends. Don’t you dare.
—Caitlin Moran

(Source: artvevo)

currentsinbiology:

Epigenetic tie to neuropsychiatric disorders found
Dysfunction in dopamine signaling profoundly changes the activity level of about 2,000 genes in the brain’s prefrontal cortex and may be an underlying cause of certain complex neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, according to UC Irvine scientists.



This epigenetic alteration of gene activity in brain cells that receive this neurotransmitter showed for the first time that dopamine deficiencies can affect a variety of behavioral and physiological functions regulated in the prefrontal cortex.
The study, led by Emiliana Borrelli, a UCI professor of microbiology & molecular genetics, appears online in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.
K Brami-Cherrier, A Anzalone, M Ramos, I Forne, F Macciardi, A Imhof, E Borrelli. Epigenetic reprogramming of cortical neurons through alteration of dopaminergic circuits. Molecular Psychiatry, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/mp.2014.67
Image via Resverlogix

currentsinbiology:

Epigenetic tie to neuropsychiatric disorders found

Dysfunction in dopamine signaling profoundly changes the activity level of about 2,000 genes in the brain’s prefrontal cortex and may be an underlying cause of certain complex neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, according to UC Irvine scientists.

This epigenetic alteration of gene activity in brain cells that receive this neurotransmitter showed for the first time that dopamine deficiencies can affect a variety of behavioral and physiological functions regulated in the prefrontal cortex.

The study, led by Emiliana Borrelli, a UCI professor of microbiology & molecular genetics, appears online in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.

K Brami-Cherrier, A Anzalone, M Ramos, I Forne, F Macciardi, A Imhof, E Borrelli. Epigenetic reprogramming of cortical neurons through alteration of dopaminergic circuits. Molecular Psychiatry, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/mp.2014.67

Image via Resverlogix

vegan-yums:

Tacos with avocado cream / Recipe
*If you don’t want to make your own filling, Lightlife/Boca/Beyond meat make good meat crumbles* Although not needed, can use lentils/beans or whatever else too.

vegan-yums:

Tacos with avocado cream / Recipe

*If you don’t want to make your own filling, Lightlife/Boca/Beyond meat make good meat crumbles* Although not needed, can use lentils/beans or whatever else too.